[citation needed] On 27 November 176, Marcus Aurelius granted Commodus the rank of Imperator and, in the middle of 177, the title Augustus, giving his son the same status as his own and formally sharing power. Commodus' reign was filled with bad decisions, causing the people of Rome to suffer. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus, in the presence of the army. Reign. Die ''Terme Taurine'' von Civitavecchia – ein römisches Heilbad. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne,", M.P. [33] Privately, it was also his custom to kill his opponents during practice matches. As the son of emperor Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was the first Roman emperor to have been "born in the purple," and thus dynastically selected to be his successor. Caesar P. Helvius Pertinax Augustus) 193: Didius Julianus (Imp. At first, events after the emperor’s death went exactly according to plan. Wikimedia CommonsA bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, styled as if he were a reincarnation of Hercules, which is precisely what he believed himself to be. Among those conspiring against him: his older sister Lucilla. The history of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. They then sent in an athlete to strangle the 31-year old emperor in his bath. And in AD 177, after the revolt of Cassius, Marcus Aurelius made him Augustus and thereby joint emperor. One would be the growing in size and power of the Eurasian steppe dwellers like the Huns. On 31 December, Marcia poisoned Commodus' food but he vomited up the poison, so the conspirators sent his wrestling partner Narcissus to strangle him in his bath. He always won because the gladiators let him and he spared their lives. Fight for Glory [39] Finally, Commodus killed a giraffe, which was considered to be a strange and helpless beast.[40]. The climax came in the year 190, which had 25 suffect consuls – a record in the 1,000-year history of the Roman consulship—all appointed by Cleander (they included the future Emperor Septimius Severus). By 192 A.D., the Roman people had had enough. He even had the temerity to name the months of the year after himself. Sources diverge on the origins of the conspiracy, with some claiming Lucilla was jealous of Commodus’ wife Crispina (incest between Commodus and Lucilla is suggested in Gladiator) while others maintain she saw the first warning signs of her brother’s mental instability. As in the past - such as in the death of Emperor Caligula - the choice of a successor fell to the Praetorian Guard. Despite his education, he did not inherit any of his father’s work. Commodus (Imp. Commodus would “enter the arena in the garb of Mercury and casting aside all his other garments, would begin his exhibition wearing only a tunic and unshod.”, As disgusted as the senators were by the sight of their emperor running around half-naked in the sands of the amphitheater, they were too terrified to do anything but play along. Nevertheless, though the senatorial order came to hate and fear him, the evidence suggests that he remained popular with the army and the common people for much of his reign, not least because of his lavish shows of largesse (recorded on his coinage) and because he staged and took part in spectacular gladiatorial combats. He was an elderly senator who was chosen by the senate as emperor. He was badly deluded and narcissistic, a result of bei… His victories were often welcomed by his bested opponents, as bearing scars dealt by the hand of an Emperor was considered a mark of fortitude. In 187, one of the leaders of the deserters, Maternus, came from Gaul intending to assassinate Commodus at the Festival of the Great Goddess in March, but he was betrayed and executed. Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum, the headquarters of Marcus Aurelius during the Marcomannic Wars, in 172. The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. In the spring of 190, Rome was afflicted by a food shortage, for which the praefectus annonae Papirius Dionysius, the official actually in charge of the grain supply, contrived to lay the blame on Cleander. An illustration of the murder of Commmodus. Roman History: Epitome of Book LXXIII pp 111. However, even these favorites were not safe from his fury. At 29, he took over more of the reins of power, though he continued to rule through a cabal consisting of Marcia, his new chamberlain Eclectus, and the new praetorian prefect Quintus Aemilius Laetus. He was the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and Aurelius's first cousin, Faustina the Younger, the youngest daughter of Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had died only a few months before. Even in his lifetime, it crippled the country. He would be the first emperor born while his father was the emperor and the last to inherit the throne as the previous five emperors (including Marcus) had obtained the throne through adoption. Roman History. Papirius Dionysius was executed, too. Foreign invaders rarely breached the frontiers of t… Commodus ruled with chaos and left chaos in his wake. The Emperor and his son then traveled to Athens, where they were initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries. 16. According to Dio Cassius, Perennis, though ruthless and ambitious, was not personally corrupt and generally administered the state well.[16]. Despite his education, he did not inherit any of his father’s work. The principal surviving literary sources are Herodian, Dio Cassius (a contemporary and sometimes first-hand observer, Senator during Commodus' reign, but his reports for this period survive only as fragments and abbreviations), and the Historia Augusta (untrustworthy for its character as a work of literature rather than history, with elements of fiction embedded within its biographies; in the case of Commodus, it may well be embroidering upon what the author found in reasonably good contemporary sources). A small group of conspirators, including the emperor’s chamberlain and mistress, Marcia, decided to kill him. After Commodus was assassinated, a senator called Pertinax was chosen to replace him. In the arena, Commodus' opponents always submitted to the emperor; as a result he never lost. Pertinax. The emperor Titus Flavian completed the Colosseum and endeared himself to the public with his generosity only to have his good works undone by his brother Domitian, who was assassinated by his own court. They moved westward, and pushed the Germans and Goths West/Southward into Roman lands. Commodus was born on 31 August 161, the son of Marcus Aurelius.He was a member of the pagan Roman House of Aurelius.Commodus was ambitious, brave (although not on the battlefield), and loyal … Gaius / Caligula (C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 12 Of The Most Visited Stories On All That's Interesting In 2018, The Best ATI Galleries Of 2018: Celebs Before Fame, '60s Pics, And More, What Stephen Hawking Thinks Threatens Humankind The Most, 27 Raw Images Of When Punk Ruled New York, Join The All That's Interesting Weekly Dispatch. Commodus in 180 AD. Commodus was born on 31 August AD 161 in Lanuvium, near Rome. “So superlatively mad had the abandoned wretch become” that he renamed Rome Colonia Commodiana (the Colony of Commodus) and changed the names of the months to each reflect one of the many epithets he had bestowed upon himself. Commodus (31 August 161-31 December 192) was the Emperor of the Roman Empire from 180 to 192, succeeding Marcus Aurelius and preceding Pertinax.. Commodus took the loss of Saoterus badly, and Perennis now seized the chance to advance himself by implicating Paternus in a second conspiracy, one apparently led by Publius Salvius Julianus, who was the son of the jurist Salvius Julianus and was betrothed to Paternus' daughter. I mean, he ruled as emperor for 12 years before being assassinated, and he co-ruled with Marcus Aurelius for three years before that. Emperor. Tiberius (Ti. Commodus was born in 161, the son of the popular and highly respected emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife Faustina the Younger. Lucius Aurelius Commodus, born 161 A.D., was appointed co-emperor by his father Marcus Aurelius in 177 A.D. when he was just 16 years old. Commodus was the tenth of fourteen children born to Aurelius, and was ultimately the only surviving son. The economy was generally buoyant, and long-distance trade flourished. Updated October 06, 2019. War broke out in Dacia: few details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne, Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, both distinguished themselves in the campaign. The first crisis of the reign came in 182, when Lucilla engineered a conspiracy against her brother. He then returned to Rome and celebrated a triumph for the conclusion of the wars on 22 October 180. Commodus was a bad emperor, but the time itself was hard. Commodus was the first Emperor born into the ‘purple’. [26] As mentioned above, he ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. Commodus was born in 161 AD near Rome, the son of Marcus Aurelius, the wise ruling emperor. He took the throne as regent, but was killed by Maximus in the Colosseum. In December, he announced his intention to inaugurate the year 193 as both consul and gladiator on 1 January. Pescennius Niger mopped up the deserters in Gaul in a military campaign, and a revolt in Brittany was put down by two legions brought over from Britain. He subsequently married Bruttia Crispina before accompanying his father to the Danubian front once more in 178. Dio Cassius 73.10.2, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, To “accept kinship with Commodus ... the bluntly pragmatic decision was taken to deify the former emperor, thus legitimizing Severus’ seizure of power.” See, Dio Cassius 73.1.2, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, Dio Cassius 73.5.3, Loeb edition translated E. Cary. He wasn’t the first person to do this (Nero had started it), but Commodus devalued Roman coins by more than any emperor since then. [21] Another event—as recorded by the historian Aelius Lampridius—took place at the Roman baths at Terme Taurine, where the emperor had an attendant thrown into an oven after he found his bathwater to be lukewarm. Early in 188, Cleander disposed of the current praetorian prefect, Atilius Aebutianus, and took over supreme command of the Praetorian Guard at the new rank of a pugione ("dagger-bearer"), with two praetorian prefects subordinate to him. Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus, or just Commodus for short, is the main antagonist of the 2000 historic action film Gladiator. The new emperor made a treaty with the German tribe of Marcomanni, his father's enemies. Essentially you became emperor in that era through being able to … [30] Popular rumors spread alleging he was actually the son, not of Marcus Aurelius, but of a gladiator whom his mother Faustina had taken as a lover at the coastal resort of Caieta.[31]. Anyone who caught the emperor’s attention risked also inadvertently invoking his wrath. Statues of Commodus were demolished. The latter died in 169 having failed to recover fr… 1983) 123. In one final act of madness, Commodus ordered the head of the Colossus of Nero to be replaced with his own and added the inscription “the only left-handed fighter to conquer twelve times (as I recall the number) one thousand men.”. His accession as emperor was the first time a son had succeeded his father since Titus succeeded Vespasian in 79. In April 175, Avidius Cassius, Governor of Syria, declared himself Emperor following rumours that Marcus Aurelius had died. From what I've read, Commodus wasn't a great emperor, but he certainly wasn't as awful as he's depicted in films like "Fall of the Roman Empire" or "Gladiator." However, when they were presented with the promise of 12,000 sesterces per soldier, they got on board. [6][7] The latter died in 169 having failed to recover from an operation, which left Commodus as Marcus Aurelius's sole surviving son. Updated October 06, 2019 Commodus (August 31, 161–December 31, 192 CE) was the emperor of Rome between 180–192 CE. On 12 October 166, Commodus was made Caesar together with his younger brother, Marcus Annius Verus. Commodus defeats his sister's coup but withdraws from governing, allowing others to amass power while he engages in an affair and banishes his wife. Commodus in 180 AD. He was the first emperor to be ‘born in the purple’, that is, during the reign of his father. Who was Early Rome ruled by the? Usapyon is the third mascot for the Yo-kai Watch franchise as well as the mascot for Yo-kai Watch Blasters: Moon Rabbit Crew. One such notable event was the attempted extermination of the house of the Quinctilii. The Roman emperors were the rulers of the Roman Empire dating from the granting of the … Emperor. In 195, the emperor Septimius Severus, trying to gain favour with the family of Marcus Aurelius, rehabilitated Commodus' memory and had the Senate deify him. During 191, the city of Rome was extensively damaged by a fire that raged for several days, during which many public buildings including the Temple of Pax, the Temple of Vesta, and parts of the imperial palace were destroyed. Cassius Dio declared that Commodus “was not naturally wicked” but that “his cowardice, made him the slave of his companions.”. English translation) UCLA Press, Berkeley CA (1961), 1.15.1-9, Dio (Cassius. He reduced the weight of the denarius from 96 per Roman pound to 105 per Roman pound (3.85 grams to 3.35 grams). He was left-handed and very proud of the fact. Cassius, however, was killed by one of his centurions before the campaign against him could begin. But the city's inhabitants may have found themselves in a potentially dangerous predicament when Emperor Commodus was assassinated in A.D. 192. As an emperor, Commodus soon became a disappointment to Marcus Aurelius. Unfortunately Pertinax miscalculated when he tried to reign in the Praetorian Guard. These Articles are Written by the Publishers of The Amazing Bible Timeline with World History . Wikimedia CommonsAn illustration of the murder of Commmodus. Commodus also had a passion for gladiatorial combat, which he took so far as to take to the arena himself, dressed as a secutor. Contemporary Roman writer Cassius Dio describes the young heir as “rather simple-minded,” but he ruled agreeably with his father and joined Marcus Aurelius in the Marcomannic Wars against the Germanic tribes along the Danube, which the emperor had been waging for several years. … Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus) 176-192: Pertinax (Imp. – E. Mer-ten, Bäder und Badegepflogenheiten in der Darstel-lung der Historia Augusta (Antiquitas. 5. The assassination attempt marked a turning point in Commodus’ reign, for “once [he had] tasted human blood, he became incapable of pity or remorse.” He began executing people without regard for rank, wealth, or sex. Unlike the other senators who were more than happy to see one of themselves on the throne, the Praetorian Guards were not that thrilled. In November 192, Commodus held Plebeian Games, in which he shot hundreds of animals with arrows and javelins every morning, and fought as a gladiator every afternoon, winning all the fights. Commodus's sister ruled briefly after Commodus was killed by Maximus. And in 177, after the revolt of Cassius, Marcus Aurelius made him Augustus and joint emperor. Caesar M. Didius Severus Julianus Augustus) 193: Septimius Severus (Imp. [37] Dio notes that the targeted senators actually found this more ridiculous than frightening, and chewed on laurel leaves to conceal their laughter. After Maximus killed Commodus in the Colloseum, the emperor was chosen from the winner of a gladiator fight between two emperor wannabes. Dissatisfaction with this state of affairs would lead to a series of conspiracies and attempted coups, which in turn eventually provoked Commodus to take charge of affairs, which he did in an increasingly dictatorial manner. Disdaining the more philosophic inclinations of his father, Commodus was extremely proud of his physical prowess. Upon his ascension, Commodus devalued the Roman currency. Marcus Aurelius did not try to oust his son as emperor. The first, Sextus Tigidius Perennis, Commodus put to death after becoming convinced he was conspiring against him. As an emperor, Commodus soon became a disappointment to Marcus Aurelius. Commodus: The True Story Of The Mad Roman Emperor Immortalized In ‘Gladiator’, Commodus exposes Lucilla’s plot in this scene from, Commodus is confronted by Maximus in the arena in this scene from. c. bribing the army to support him. He was portrayed by Joaquin Phoenix, who would later portray Arthur Fleck in Joker. The benevolent emperor Claudius who improved Rome with public works was followed by his stepson Nero, who infamously burnt it to the ground. Ulpius Marcellus was replaced as governor of Britain by Pertinax; brought to Rome and tried for treason, Marcellus narrowly escaped death. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short-lived; he would become the first claimant to be usurped during the Year of the Five Emperors. Herodian's Roman History F.L. Petrinax was acclaimed Emperor but he was later deposed, and this led to a series of civil wars that only ended with the rise of Septimius Severus. “Commodus was a greater curse to the Romans than any pestilence or any crime” and the city had descended into bankruptcy and chaos. They then returned to Rome in the autumn of 176. Commodus indeed led the troops in the wars on the Danube together with his father from AD 178, until the death of Marcus Aurelius in AD 180. Information about the Roman emperor Commodus. 4. In 177 AD following Cassius’ rebellion, Emperor Aurelius announced Commodus as Augustus and co-emperor. As stern and powerful as Zeus Ceionia Fabia: Levick ( 2014 ), p. 164 indicate that individual. From the governorship of Germania Inferior Hohl, bearbeitet und übersetzt von Merten... He did not inherit any of his power, Cleander continued to sell public offices as private! 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