In late 49 BC, Caesar and his 12 legions arrived at Brundisium, where he hoped to secure passage to Greece. It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had … Following the Norman conquest of Byzantine Italy and Saracen Sicily, the Byzantine emperor, Michael VII Doukas (r. 1071–1078), betrothed his son to Robert Guiscard's daughter. [33] With this money, Alexius mustered an army near Thessalonica and went to fight Bohemond. Raising an army of 15,000 Normans and mercenary auxiliaries, Robert and his son Bohemond launched a fleet toward the Byzantine coast. [10], By 1071, Robert, together with his brother Roger, had taken over the last Byzantine stronghold in Italy, Bari. Realizing he was going to have to fight his way out, he attempted another winter blockade run back to Italy to lead his remaining forces to Greece. The counterattack on Pompey's camp disintegrated completely. At two of these forts one cohort under Lucius Minucius Basilus and three cohorts under Gaius Volcatius Tullus put up stiff resistance against five of Pompey's legions until they were relieved by a force of two legions from the main camp under Publius Cornelius Sulla. Caesar reckoned the Pompeian losses at 2,000. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). Guiscard sent his heavy cavalry against the Byzantine centre. Although the attack was initially successful, the Caesarian troops were outnumbered 2:1 and Pompey's troops fought hard. [21], Alexius advanced from Salonica and pitched camp on the river Charzanes near Dyrrhachium on October 15. Dyrrhachium (also known as Epidamnus, modern Durrës in Albania) is at the beginning of the Via Egnatia, the Roman road that connected the Adriatic Sea to Macedonia and the Aegean Sea. bat. [35] The demoralised and unpaid Norman army returned to the coast and sailed back to Italy. The Byzantine recovery began the Komnenian restoration. The Norman right wing suddenly charged forward to the point where the Byzantine left and centre met, directing its attack against the Varangian left flank. At first Caesar personally tried to stem the retreat, but the fleeing troops did not stop until they reached their own camps. Pompey refrained from pursuing Caesar's routed forces and this allowed them to regroup. His ships were destroyed in a brief naval battle, while at the same time, the garrison of Dyrrhachium, led by George Palaeologus, defeated the Normans outside the city and destroyed their siege tower. It was fought between Julius Caesar and the army led by Gnaeus Pompey with the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. However, with the collapse of the Norman right, the knights were in danger of being outflanked. Both armies now prepared for the decisive battle which was fought four days later on 9 August 48 BC. However, Libo could not sustain this position because of a lack of water.[3]. Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemond besieged it in 1081 in the Norman attempt at … The garrison made continuous sallies from the city; on one occasion, Palaeologus fought all day with an arrowhead in his skull. An old rival, Bibulus, controlled the Ionium Sea with the Republican navy, and Caesar fretted over when and how to make a crossing. [18], Robert soon left Avalona and sailed to the island of Corfu, which surrendered because of a small garrison. (Dyrrachium, Civil Wars of Caesar and Pompey, 48 B.C.) This charge broke the Byzantine lines and caused them to rout. The Caesarian general Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus and the Pompeian general Scipio Nasica were both in that country with their respective armies, and both Caesar and Pompey then aimed to link up with their corresponding forces. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Norman conquest of Byzantine Italy and Saracen Sicily, http://books.google.com/books?id=p8OOoGWRC2EC, http://books.google.com/books?id=ispoQgAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=kZ8XAAAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=rKj8_W9wL7kC, http://books.google.com/books?id=tUnscbUKyJUC, http://books.google.com/books?id=OycjAQAAIAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=oK9mAAAAMAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=uUGTQgAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=49HOSAAACAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=HUpoAAAAMAAJ, http://books.google.com/books?id=IzB1QgAACAAJ, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dyrrhachium_(1081)?oldid=4971621. The Battle at Dyrrachium preceded the Battle of Pharsalus which was the decisive turning point in the Civil War leading to a Caesarian victory. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (also known as Durazzo), the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. Guiscard formed his battle line opposite Alexius's, with the right wing under the command of the Count of Giovinazzo, the left under Bohemond and Guiscard facing Alexius in the centre. He sent some of his cohorts to reinforce the garrisons of Apollonia and Oricum, and propelled the bulk of his remaining troops into Thessaly. The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one. [7], At Dyrrachium Caesar only just escaped the ambush Pompey had set for him. Alexius moved his army to the hills opposite the city, planning to attack the Normans the next day. The Turks who had been lent to him by the Seljuk Sultan Suleyman I followed Constantine's example and deserted. The defense of the citadel was left to the Venetians, while the city itself was left to an Albanian, Komiskortes. According to Plutarch, Caesar remarked on that decision saying, "Today the victory had been the enemy's, had there been any one among them to gain it. Pompey sent a large force of infantry and 3,000 cavalry to outflank Caesar's right wing. The few remaining Varangians fled into the church of the Archangel Michael. While escaping, he was wounded in his forehead and lost a lot of blood, but eventually made it back to Ohrid, where he regrouped his army. He responded by building fortifications to cut off the two approaches to the town and prevented Pompey's horses from grazing in the countryside to the north. In this way, he would maintain his imperium and thereby not be vulnerable to lawsuits. Battle of Pharsalus, (48 bce), the decisive engagement in the Roman civil war (49–45 bce) between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great. Twelve cohorts under Mark Antony then counterattacked, re-securing part of the wall and pushing Pompey's disordered forces back. [25], Alexius and his guards resisted as long as they could before retreating. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle during Caesar's Civil War that took place near the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania). The battle began with the Byzantine right wing routing the Norman left wing, which broke and fled. Varangian mercenaries joined in the pursuit of the fleeing Normans, but became separated from the main force and were massacred. After his defeat at Dyrrhachium in July of 48 BC, Caesar moved swiftly into Thessaly, incorporating the towns of the region under his control. Offended by Caesar's response, the Senate demanded he immediately disband his army, or be declared an enemy of the people. Moreover, prior to the end of his five years as proconsul of Gaul and Illyricum, Caesar assisted his allies Crassus and Pompey in being elected consuls, who in turn extended his pro-consulship for a further five years. [4], Between these two fortifications a no man's land was created which saw constant skirmishes with little or no gain. "[28], George Palaeologus had not been able to re-enter the city after the battle and left with the main force. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. In 50 BC, at his Proconsular term's expiry, the Senate forbade Caesar's standing for election in absentia for a second consulship and because of this, Caesar thought he would be prosecuted and rendered politically marginalised if he entered Rome without consular immunity or his army. When Michael was deposed, Robert took this as an excuse to invade the Byzantine Empire in 1081. He split his army into three divisions, with the left wing under the command of Gregory Pakourianos, the right wing under the command of Nikephoros Melissenos, and himself in command of the centre. Caesar gives his own losses at about 1,000; Pompey's were presumably less. The Battle of Dyrrhachium took place on October 18, 1081. Between these two fortifications a no mans land was creat… The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard,Duke of Apulia and Calabria. The Battle of Dyrrhachium took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by Alexius I, and the Normans under Robert Guiscard. After the failure of the counterattack and considering the losses incurred, Caesar resolved to give up attempting to besiege Pompey and to change the entire strategy of the campaign. Henry responded by invading Italy and attacking the Pope. Forced to retreat to Italy, Bohemond lost all the territory gained by the Normans in the campaign. Two Gallic noblemen were caught stealing the pay from auxiliary cavalry under their command, but managed to escape to Pompey. Caesar first ordered his troops on the right to stand firm, but then saw the danger of being outflanked. Having only assembled half the needed ships, Caesar decided to take seven available legions across the Adriatic, and to then have the ships travel back to Brundisium, (modern-day Brindisi), and transport the remaining legions once they had arrived at Brundisium. The Battle of Dyrrhachium in February 1018 was a part of the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars. The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was a battle of Caesar's Civil War in the area of the city of Dyrrachium (in what is now Albania).It was fought between Julius Caesar and the army led by Gnaeus Pompey with the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate.The battle was indecisive but is regarded as a victory for Pompey. [29], In February 1082, Dyrrhachium fell after a Venetian or Amalfian citizen opened the gates to the Normans. From all quarters of Lombardy and Apulia he gathered them, over age and under age, pitiable objects who had never seen armour in their dreams, but then clad in breastplates and carrying shields, awkwardly drawing bows to which they were completely unused and following flat on the ground when they were allowed to march.....Yet, however unused to soldiering they were, he (Robert Guiscard) trained them daily and hammered his recruits into a disciplined force. [13], Coordinates: 41°19′00″N 19°27′00″E / 41.3167°N 19.4500°E / 41.3167; 19.4500, 1,000 according to Caesar himself, 1,000 according to Plutarch in his, Learn how and when to remove this template message, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_dyrrhachium.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Dyrrhachium_(48_BC)&oldid=991723255, Articles needing additional references from July 2011, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 14:06. [23] He held a war council there and sought advice from his senior officers; among them was George Palaeologus, who had managed to sneak out of the city. However, as the siege wore on, their positions began to change. Gravett, Christopher; Nicolle, David (2006). "[27] He lost about 5,000 of his men, including most of the Varangians. Dyrrachium was a strong defensive position for Pompey. Robert conscripted all men of a fighting age into the army, which he refitted. Guiscard rushed to Italy, leaving Bohemond in command of the army in Greece. The Varangians stood their ground while the Byzantine left, including some of Alexius' elite troops, attacked the Normans. The battle ended in a Norman victory, with Alexios I Komnenos routing the Norman left wing, which broke and fled. By the end of Julius Caesar's first year as consul he had accumulated a large list of lawsuits. [18] The Doge, alarmed by Norman control of the Strait of Otranto, took command of the Venetian fleet and sailed at once, surprising the Norman fleet under the command of Bohemond as night was falling. There, according to Comnena, they were rallied by Guiscard's wife, Sikelgaita, described as "like another Pallas, if not a second Athena". DYRRHACHIUM: LESNIKIA R (48) – Second Civil W ar. However, in 1078, Michael was overthrown by Nicephorus Botaneiates, an event that destroyed any chances Helena had for the throne. The army numbered 30,000 men, backed up by 1,300 Norman knights. Soon afterwards the Norman army was afflicted with disease, which, according to Anna Comnena, may have killed up to 10 000 men. [1] A majority of the senior officers, including Palaeologus, urged caution, noting that time was with the Emperor. Worse, Alexius's vassal, King Constantine Bodin of Duklja, betrayed him. He had other problems as well; Pompey had left him with no ships to cross the Adriatic, and Spain had begun to mobilize against Caesar. In 1073, the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII sent an envoy to Robert offering the hand of his son Constantine to Robert's daughter Helena. : p. 108 (48, May 20, Battle of Dyrrhachium) found : Harbottle dict. [5] Pompey responded with earthworks and fortifications of his own; thereby enclosing an area of grazing land as wide as possible and trying to stretch Caesar's lines to its limits. Robert left his son Bohemond in charge of the army in Greece. It consisted of Thracian and Macedonian tagmata, which numbered about 5,000 men; the elite excubitors and vestiaritai units, which numbered around 1,000 men; a force of Manichaeans which comprised 2,800 men, Thessalian cavalry, Balkan conscripts, Armenian infantry and other light troops. Battle of Dyrrhachium. thus ended in fiasco, and he marched away into Thessaly, perhaps threatening Thessalonica or perhaps mainly in search of corn. The two ancient leaders fought against each other for absolute power over the Roman Republic. [36] Meanwhile, Alexius granted the Venetians a commercial colony in Constantinople, as well as exemption from trading duties in return for their renewed aid. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (also known as Durazzo), the Byzantine capital of Illyria, and ended in a Norman victory. As well as the native troops, the Byzantines were joined by 2,000 Turkish and 1,000 Frankish mercenaries, about 1,000 Varangians and 7,000 Turkish auxiliaries sent by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. The imperial camp, which had been left unguarded, fell to the Normans. [25], "Alexius was undoubtedly a good tactician, but he was badly let down by the indisciplined rush to pursue the beaten enemy wings, a cardinal sin in the Byzantine tactical manuals. [19] The city was well defended on a long, narrow peninsula running parallel to the coast, but separated by marshlands. The Normans counter-attacked tenaciously, but their inexperience in naval combat betrayed them. The Battle of Dyrrhachium (near present-day Durrës in Albania) took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081–1118), and the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria. The Normans first arrived in Southern Italy in 1015 from northern France and served local Lombard lords as mercenaries against the Byzantine Empire. ", The Norman fleet of 150 ships including 60 horse transports set off towards the Byzantine Empire at the end of May 1081. The battle was fought outside the city of Dyrrhachium (present-day Durrës in Albania), the major Byzantine stronghold in the western Balkans, and ended in a Norman victory. He ordered a retreat which soon became a panicked and disordered rout. It was fought between Julius Caesar and an army led by Gnaeus Pompey who had the backing of the majority of the Roman Senate. His army laid siege to Dyrrhachium, but his fleet was defeated by the Venetians. One of the most important battles of the eleventh century took place on October 18, 1081 at Dyrrhachium (present-day Durrës in Albania). ", The battle was a heavy defeat for Alexius. Battle of Pharsalus. While Guiscard was in Kastoria, messengers arrived from Italy, bearing news that Apulia, Calabria, and Campania were in revolt. Battle of Dyrrhachium Emperor Alexius arrived in the vicinity of the besieged city in mid-October. As it was winter Bibulus was unprepared and Caesar was able to sail through the blockade easily and form a beachhead at Epirus with the first half of his army. The Normans immediately set the church on fire, and all Varangians perished in the blaze. By January of 48 BC, Caesar decided there was no time like the present and decided to make a surprise winter crossing, to offset the advantage that … The battle was a victory for Pompey, albeit not a decisive one. The next morning he offered battle. 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